One approach is to continue intensifying the resource investment into providing education without paying adequate attention to learning assessments, school accountability and a growing move to private schools. Global research has shown that inputs in education including government expenditure have little connection with learning outcomes. Studies suggest little to no link between increasing the budgetary allocation and performance of students. There is not enough reason to believe that more of the same will bring about different and better results. Instead, India should choose to jumpstart system-wide education reform and build links in delivery across different levels of education. This will require applying new public management strategies to education, away from ‘mission mode’ to systemic transformation - building capacity, incentives and tools for quality improvement, insisting on innovative and effective delivery, monitoring performance and accountability, and targeting resource to individual students. A central pillar of this shift is to choose whether the government should ‘make or source’, and to what extent. With either choice, a focus on learning outcome improvement, parental and student choice, and school improvement through competition, autonomy and performance will help create an enabling environment for quality education delivery.