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Chapter V: Governance in Education


5.1.1    The Indian Education system is among the largest in the world, with about 26 crore children enrolled in classes 1 to 12, located in 36 states and union territories, 683 districts, about 7300 blocks and more than 82,000 clusters, covering more than 15.1 lakh schools; the total number of teachers functioning in the system (both in public and private schools) is of the order of 80 lakhs. This does not include the enrolment in higher education institutions, which cover more than 3 crore students. In many senses, this is one of the largest areas of direct contact between the state and the citizen, with nearly 1/5th of the population directly involved daily in the teaching / learning process.

5.1.2    Despite the above, the states’ political machinery (the chief minister or the cabinet ministers) in general attach less significance in terms of political attention to the education sector, compared to the issues relating to law and order, development administration or farming issues etc., highly important as these are. Perhaps this stems from a number of factors which include (a) the main point of contact is with children, who are below the voting age; (b) education is a long gestation process, where results come over years, whereas the average politician looks for engagement with events or issues which show movement over a much more limited period of time; (c) education is process oriented, not event-oriented; (d) the daily events are repetitive, non-glamorous, and expectedly do not receive public attention, as it is taken as routine; and, (e) it has no visible outcome in the daily run. For these reasons, unless there is some special or noteworthy adverse event that takes place, the education sector is not usually in the political or media limelight.

5.1.3    The Education Department in the states occupies a relatively low position in the hierarchy of departments that get the attention of the political executive; even though there is large interest shown on issues relating to teachers' postings/transfers  and   recruitment.  While  no   formal   studies  appear   to   be available, it can be generally postulated that the overall ‘quality’ of education is a function of the political attention that the sector has received from the political system. In the composite educational development index (2014-15) for all schools developed by NUEPA, using parameters relating to access, infrastructure, number of teachers and outcomes, it may be observed that by-and-large states leading in educational outcome are also those with relatively higher per capita incomes; the states towards the bottom of the table are also generally speaking those with relatively lower per capita income (many of these in the latter group are also from the heartland of India). While pointing out that this key area is not sufficiently researched by think-tanks and research institutions attached to the MHRD, a very general conclusion can be tentatively drawn that attention from the chief minister


and senior ministers, and the importance given to this sector by the political leadership in a state, is directly related to the quality of education provided by the state. The Committee had occasion to observe the broad validity of the above statement, in its discussions with the state governments.

5.1.4    In addition to the senior political leadership in the state, the political class in  general  is wary  of the teacher  community, and  is  usually reluctant to  take rational steps for monitoring and improving the management in the sector; this is possibly due to the general impression that the teacher community being associated with the election process, should be handled with kid-gloves. The general impression is that all parties like to use teachers for political work during elections, as they are perceived to be effective opinion-makers in many rural communities;  thus  investing  the  teacher  community with  political  importance. With the legal provision in RTE (Section 27) relating to use of teachers on various administrative unrelated chores, to free them to devote time exclusively for school work, this issue may not be so relevant in future. The states need to consciously take steps in furtherance of this requirement to phase out involvement of teachers in administrative work.

5.1.5    Elsewhere in this report, recommendations have been made relating to the other extraneous work of the tehsil/block being entrusted to teachers. For education standards to improve it should be ensured that the teachers are not pressed  into  service to  aid  the general  administration at the expense  of their primary school-related work; they should be largely left primarily to teaching in schools.

5.1.6  Indeed there is no reason why appropriate effective management mechanisms should not be ushered in the school sector. The Committee’s experience is that by-and-large the teacher community consists of sincere persons with potential, where most teachers would perform with dedication, but a small proportion among them takes advantage of the lack of supervision and uses political contact to gain proximity to power and thereby exercise influence o n the majority of teachers. This results in standards of discipline and pride in belonging to a noble profession giving way to apathy and negligence of core responsibilities. Ultimately this affects the quality of teaching and learning outcomes. There is need to establish impersonal systems designed to ensure oversight of the work of Principals and teachers – in short management at the school level.

5.1.7    The process of selection, promotion and transfer of teachers and Principals need to be made transparent, on established principles. The teacher education system needs to be drastically revamped. The criteria for approval of new institutions and their regular evaluation need to be strengthened, with new open processes established, along with extensive use of IT. These can help reduce political interference and corruption and restore credibility in the system.

5.1.8    Political intervention from all levels is all pervasive in selecting location of institutions, approval of grant-in-aid status, selection of examination centres, and all  senior  appointments  and  in  many  states  from  VC  to  college  Principals  to District Education Officers. Any functionary or close observer could give any number of examples from his own experience to substantiate this point.

5.1.9    It is sadly undeniable that there is large scale corruption in appointments, transfers, approval to affiliate and grant recognition of institutions, even going to the extent of manipulation of examination results. A cross-section of stakeholders gave examples of widespread corruption which prevails in the functioning of regulators like AICTE, UGC, MCI and NCTE; the general refrain was that any obstacle can be overcome by contacting the right persons. Commercialisation is rampant and reflected in the extent of charges levied for admissions ranging from tiny-tots to professional courses; some reliable private estimates in such instances go up to very large sums. The proliferation of tuition / coaching classes is a clear index of the lack of credibility of the school system. Most senior officials in the states are apathetic at best, and display lack of probity, a factor undeniable in the entire hierarchy, with  honourable exceptions. Compounded with  bureaucratic– academic nexus, the pernicious role of regulators, general apathy and the loss of respect for scholarship have all contributed to the diminished credibility of the education system.

5.1.10 It is no wonder that anyone having dealings with the education system has generally lost faith in its credibility. In particular, those who can afford to turn their backs on government schools and colleges reach out to private schools or migrate abroad for study – not that many private schools are significantly superior to their counterparts run by the state. The point in short is that the system is largely sick, and needs rejuvenation – the quality of education, which is critical, has been the main casualty thereby converting the sacred process of education to an unregulated commercial system. The Committee would like to mention a caveat that  while  the  above  is  the  norm,  there  are  many  fine  institutions,  run  by motivated altruistic agencies and individuals, which still maintain very high standards – even though, alas, they are too few in number.

5.1.11 The Committee also heard repeatedly in nearly every individual or group discussion at Delhi and during field visits, of ‘political interference’ as the main reason for poor performance in the education field. Nearly every field education official, at state or district or block level, when asked to analyze the reasons for poor performance in the sector, would invariably point to political interference. During the meetings with national educational institutions at Delhi or informal contacts with state level officials all over India, this was again the single most important reason mentioned by all the respondents. Thus when national accrediting agencies were asked to explain why undeserving educational institutions often received rapid accreditation, while ‘more qualified’ institutions were left out of the process for long periods, the answer almost invariably would relate to political interference. Thus at the school level (postings and transfers of principals and teachers) at the block level, at the district level, the common refrain of all officials involved in education would relate to ‘politics’ as the mainspring for non-performance. The Committee cannot ignore this repeated assertion brought to its attention in different forms in diverse circumstances – the clear conclusion is that ‘political interference’ is almost certainly the most important reason for poor outcomes. This significant factor negates any effort to administer the system or reward efficiency and dedication.

5.1.12 In many states, past experience has indicated that selection of teachers has been a highly skewed operation, where selection criteria normally include merit. However, extraneous factors relating to improper monetary considerations often become the decisive factor in the selection process. The point also was repeatedly made that the postings of teachers, in many states, did not follow an open transparent policy based on clearly understood principles – it was decided on the whims and fancies of the various authorities, motivated by extraneous monetary and  other factors, and  also influenced  by local  political  interests  – forcing the teacher community willy-nilly to secure positions and postings through political patronage. The Committee also found that in the past, and continuing now, there has been no credible or reliable system of measurement of a teacher’s output or performance – promotion or increments have generally had little correlation with merit  or  performance,  the  management  of  the  educational  manpower  being largely non-transparent and arbitrary. It was also repeatedly mentioned that the teacher preparation before joining or in-service periodical training courses were routine, unstructured, and generally irrelevant to enhancing teacher quality; there was hardly any merit-based supervision or logic in the management of the sector. In  sum,  all  the  above  have  contributed  to  suboptimal  performance  by  the teacher/-principal community, on whose morale, efficiency and initiative the success of the school education sector is dependent.

5.1.13 It should be added that this general criticism is not valid in respect of all states in India; the Committee was pleased to note the high degree of positive interest taken by the political leadership in some states (alas, too few), as well as steps initiated to improve the management of the teacher/principal community, and  make  the  process  of  decision-making  more  transparent,  predictable  and based on clear parameters.

5.1.14 Very similar kinds of comments or allegations or assessments were readily available in informal comments relating to the higher education sector. The Committee heard of institutions charging large capitation fees (illegal), as also colleges readily issuing degrees against payments proffered under-the-table; the general informal comment was that all ‘approvals’ were ‘purchasable’.

5.1.15 Whether or not these adverse comments, severe as they are, largely true or not, the conclusion is inescapable that governance standards at all levels has been poor, to say the least. Processes and procedures have been rolled out without due consideration for verification or ensuring that these are implemented faithfully on the ground. It is also likely that the charge of political interference is often made facilely, more to mask corruption at the official levels, and shift the blame elsewhere. It is equally noteworthy that while nearly every agency or institution at the Centre or in the state talked openly about these factors, no research or regulatory institution or national level statutory bodies attached to the ministry has openly researched these matters, and validated or dismissed these allegations. It is a measure of the pusillanimity of the national institutions attached to the MHRD, with full time senior academics and professionals, being unable to openly comment on the current state of affairs, without which remedies are not possible. These are not new trends, but the result of weak management, poor control, politicization of sector and the abdication of basic management practices at the Centre or the State, which have allowed major vested interests to develop over the decades. It is also abundantly clear that in those few states which formally recognized lack of governance in the education sector as the key issue, and put in place remedial steps, there has clearly been overall improvement in outcomes.


5.1.16  The Committee concludes that in many parts of the education system, at the school or higher levels,  factors other  than  merit have played  and are  playing  a significant part in the management of affairs; proper governance standards have not been put into place with adequate incentives, checks and balances.

5.1.17  The Committee recommends that all aspects in the hierarchy be reviewed to bring about transparency, clear-cut criteria in operations, establishment of open systems, independent outside verification to ensure compliance; and use of Information Technology appropriately to achieve the above.

5.1.18  Among the major changes required, one can indicate the following:

(i)    Independent mechanism for teacher recruitment – the recent TET mechanism (with appropriate safeguards) will ensure good quality recruitment of teachers.

(ii)    Creation of an Autonomous Teacher Recruitment Board.

(iii)  Revamp of teacher education system and introduction of a four-year integrated B.Ed. Course or a two-year B.Ed. Course after graduation.

(iv)   Well thought out teacher preparation systems.

(v)   Effective monitoring of teacher performance, with built-in incentive systems.

(vi) Grant  of  extra-increments,  preferred  postings  and  state/district recognition awards need to be related to measurable outcomes in respect of teacher-performance.

(vii)  Great care in selection of Principals, and vesting them with appropriate freedom for action.

(viii) Build  an  effective  quality  monitoring  system,  linking  the  schools  on hierarchical management system, at the block / district / state level.

(ix)    New transparent system for approval, affiliation and regular evaluation of new institutions, with transparent processes, based on clearly established principles, with full public disclosure.

(x)     Bringing accountability at each level of operation.


(xi)    Appropriate use of Information Technology in every aspect of governance of the sector.


5.1.19 All  the  above  have  been  separately  discussed  and  course  of  action recommended in the appropriate sections elsewhere. Elsewhere also the need for coordination  within  the  State,  at  the  State  Capital,  Division,  District,  Block,  and school levels has been made. Information Technology can be used as a major tool in furtherance of the above objectives. The Committee is satisfied that if substantive steps on the above mentioned lines are taken, the quality of governance will sharply improve, with consequent significant enhancement in the quality of education.



5.2    Use of ICT for Improving Quality of Education 

5.2.1   Major developments in Communication and Information Technology in recent decades have brought in new dimensions in the fields of transmission of data, and use of IT as a vehicle for monitoring and management, among others. In the education sector, this is one fundamental change since the previous Education Policy of 1986-1992. New possibilities have already opened up for use of information technology in different ways, not only to manage the sector, but also directly assist in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. Many new applications  are  already  in  place;  as  developments  in  the  IT  sector  advance rapidly,  new  opportunities  constantly  keep  emerging,  which  could  be appropriately harnessed and adapted to assist in the field of education.

5.2.2    The other significant development relates to the Digital India programme being rolled out under the initiative of the Government of India. As the implementation of this game-changing process advances, the likelihood is that the urban-rural divide will be bridged with a reliable communication information network, proceeding apace now and likely to be fully in place in the next three or four years. This will also sharply improve the quality and speed of delivery of information and many other services to the field, and could dramatically improve two-way exchange of data between the field formations and the management located at district/state/central headquarters.

5.2.3    Some experiments have already taken place, of different dimensions and quality in the education field. As will be seen later, the District Information System for  Education  (DISE) programme for gathering  information and  data, which  is already  in  place,  can  be  sharply  upgraded  for  greater  reliability and  use  as  a monitoring/management  instrument.  Many  high-end   schools,  particularly  in urban areas are already experimenting with video material to supplement the prescribed text books for use in the classroom. A number of private companies have emerged to create digital material for use in the classroom, as well as for individual learning – the fact that many of them are already successfully functioning as corporates indicate the potential in this regard. Distance learning has made significant  progress; the Government of India’s initiative in creating IGNOU is an important landmark in this direction. The potential for using imaginatively information technology for preparation as well as in-service training of teachers, as also to support class-teachers to put together creative teaching material to enhance the learning process needs to be explored, developed and exploited. The following sections indicate the possibilities as they appear today, in the opinion of the Committee. Without doubt, many new potential applications of IT in aid of education will emerge in the coming years.

5.2.4    There is no question that the power of computer technology needs to be harnessed to aid the cause of teaching and learning in the field of education. Many experiments have taken place in the past few years, but a clear picture has so far not emerged as to the specific ways in which Information Technology (IT) is being utilized  in  the  classroom  and  elsewhere.  The  Committee  notes  that  while  the MHRD has continuously supported new initiatives and experimentation in this field, the large number of expert organizations attached to the Ministry of HRD have not adequately addressed the issue, with research and analysis, to roll out programmes designed to harness IT to improve education in India. This segment touches on the following elements:

  • Background: Use of ICT in   education.
  • IT as aid to the teacher in the classroom
  • IT to aid in remedial education.
  • IT for use in training of teachers.
  • IT for adult literacy.
  • IT modules as learning tools in higher education.
  • Use of IT for ‘big-data’ as a management and governance tool.

(a)        Background:  Use of ICT in Education

5.2.5    India recognized the importance of ICT in education as early as 1984-85when Computer Literacy and Studies in Schools (CLASS) was introduced as a pilot project. Under this initiative 2598 secondary schools were provided BBC micro- computers during the 8th Plan (1993-98). In 1998 National IT Task Force was constituted by the Prime Minister which made several recommendations for making available computers and educational software to teachers and students. Computers and Internet were to be made available to schools, colleges and polytechnics by the year 2003.

5.2.6    During  the  last  decade,  thousands  of  computers  have  been  installed  in upper primary and secondary/higher secondary schools under various programmes of Central and State Governments. Some States have introduced Computers as an optional subject in SSC Board examinations. Government of India also provides assistance to States for production of audio, video and multimedia programmes through State Institute of Education Technology (SIET) set up in 8States, under the overall guidance and support of Central Institute of EducationTechnology.

5.2.7    The ‘significant role’ ICT can play in school education was also highlighted in  the  national  curriculum  framework  2005  (NCF).  The  essential  component related to establishment of ‘smart schools’ designed to become technology demonstrators. Till 2015, 85,127 ICT enabled schools were established in the country under RMSA. The thrust had been essentially on familiarizing the student with the use of computers, and teaching basic operations at secondary levels – the deployment of IT as an aid to education, or as a management tool had not been conceived of or focused on.

5.2.8    Unfortunately, the results of all these initiatives have not had the expected results. While computers have been provided to a very large number of schools, their use remains limited. In many schools hardware remains locked in the headmasters room, in many they remain in their original packing as either there are no teachers to operate them, or the computer rooms have not been made ready, or the school does not have electric power, or grants to pay electricity bills. Even where computers are used, it is mostly to teach programs like Word and MS office. Text books teach the theory of computing, and examinations are conducted to test that knowledge whereas emphasis should have been on hands on practical learning. Most schools do not have internet connectivity and computers are rarely used in Government schools as an aid for teaching and learning.

5.2.9    ICT should be made an integral part of school education where it is used as an aid to teachers and students. For this a beginning has to be made in the Teacher Training Colleges. Unless teachers are comfortable using computers and internet, they will find it difficult to use it as a teaching aid, or to guide students on its use; Teachers have to  gradually become facilitators and  encourage self-learning  by students. Education can no longer be confined to what is in the textbooks; internet has removed all barriers to learning and made available sources of knowledge not accessible so far. The examination system will have to be revamped to test knowledge  and  understanding  and  not  reproduce  the  text  books.  ICT  can  no longer be treated as a school subject; it has to become a way of learning process.

(b)       IT as Aid to Teacher in the Classroom

5.2.10 In the past few years, a number of private initiatives have emerged India, to create video material following the text books in the curriculum of various school boards, or the NCERT suggested texts. Many schools in urban areas already use these aids to the teacher –such use is reported to be increasing particularly in urban schools. In this model, the use of computer is not required by the student, nor even by the teacher; only a video projection or equivalent of text-book material, suitably prepared and adapted, with animation features to make it attractive for young children, is used as a teaching-aid by the teacher in the classroom.

5.2.11 While  surprisingly  NCERT  or  NUEPA  or  any  other  technical/research agency has not found it necessary to do a study of these developments, the fact that many new corporate initiatives have emerged in this direction indicate that this has significant potential. No formal study is available to establish the efficacy and value-added potential of such training material in aid of teacher in the classroom; it  can  be  surmised  that teachers  do  find  it useful  from  the fact of exponential increase in such practices. The sceptics may also have a point in speculating that the induction of such technology is merely to impress the parent and the child about how ‘modern’ the school is in its teaching practices! This factor alone cannot disprove the potential for use of this method of teaching.

5.2.12 It has been said that ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’ – surely it should be  possible  to  convey  simple  or  even  relatively  complex  concepts  and  ideas through animation and through pictorial depiction. It is important to pursue this as  a  potential  instrument  to  sharply  enhance  the  learning  process  in  the classroom, particularly in the secondary schooling sector.

5.2.13 It  is  now  fairly  established  that  teaching  material  at  the  primary  and secondary class levels, well prepared, and adapted to local conditions, can act as a powerful tool as aid to the teacher, in enhancing the quality of learning to the student. Experiments, particularly at the primary level have clearly indicated that the teacher cannot be substituted – IT cannot by itself deliver the necessary instruction material to the student. However, where the teacher is able to use well-prepared material as aid in the classroom for the teaching process, significant improvements in learning ability have been recorded. The Committee was informed of one such initiative, described below.

The ‘Shiksha’ Experiment

5.2.14 A private foundation has been implementing ‘Shiksha’, a project in 340schools across 244 villages, mostly rural, covering 15,000 students of Grade 1 and2, in different parts of Uttar Pradesh, for the past two years. An extract from their report (according to them independently verified) is reproduced below:

“SHIKSHA  Initiative”  is  a  unique  replicable  and  scalable  program  d esigned  to enhance the education standard in primary education (Grade 1 and 2) with high- quality consistent content based on State Board syllabus and a technology-based mode of dissemination to instil learning retention among children. The pedagogy involves teaching with the aid of IT material, assessment of the student, querying, and augmentation – based on a procedure has been developed. The critical metric of the Shiksha Initiative is to ensure that 90% of the students (Grade 1 and 2) under the program retain 90% of the content taught in the classrooms.

5.2.15 According to the Foundation, independent assessment of the programme (the Committee did not have an opportunity to explore the evidence in depth) has demonstrated:-(a) Increased  enrolment in schools  and  increase   in attendance percentage; (b) Average attendance increase from 30% to 80% in Government schools and 90% in Private Schools; (c) Increased education standards in grade 1 and 2 – Students now able to write in grade 1, not normally demonstrated  by students even in grade 3; (d) increased level of confidence in students: (e) motivated teachers/students; and (f) sharply increased scores in assessments.

5.2.16 The Committee notes that   as Digital India is rolled out, cost of delivery system   per   classroom   likely  to   decline  dramatically;  high   quality  teaching material, once prepared, can be reproduced at nearly no cost.

5.2.17 It is clear that the above potentially path-breaking initiative, and perhaps other experiments elsewhere in India, will open new vistas for enhancing quality of learning, particularly in lower classes (primary). Further experiments need to be embarked upon to test the methodology, with suitable adaptation, for higher classes, in the secondary level – the efficacy in conveying concepts relating to say physics or mathematics surely should be explored.

(c)   IT to Aid in Remedial Education

5.2.18 Elsewhere,  dealing  with  the  school  systems,  the  question  of  remedial education to help slow learners to come up to the average class level has been discussed. In the context of the RTE stipulation of no detention till class 8, it has become imperative to ensure that the relatively weak learners in each class are appropriately assisted to make up the gaps in their learning, to be generally in line with their cohorts as the schooling years progress.  Since detention is a harsh step, and is to be resorted to only after all other attempts to bring a child to minimal acceptable levels in each class is exhausted, the remedial and augmentation modules, through animation and videos assume special significance. This is discussed elsewhere in the school section.

5.2.19 One  attempt  at  remedial  coaching  may  not  be  sufficient.  In  most  rural areas, as also in urban areas, many parents would not be in a position to support private tuition to bring the child to minimal acceptable levels in each class. Apart from the remedial methods mentioned above, it needs also to be explored whether it is possible to arrange for learning modules, appropriately packaged for each subject relating to each class, be web-broadcast to be utilized on call or at specific timings in remote locations, where the student assisted by parents or teacher or on his own can use this additional option for making up for lost learning, and for coming up to minimal levels. This needs further exploration.

(d)       IT as Training Material for Teachers

5.2.20 The generally accepted notion is that a child cannot learn, unaided, through video modules or through the internet; in many parts of the world interested adults have used these devices to study on their own. The Committee surmises that  experiments  may  have  been  done  in  different  parts  of  the  world  in  this regard, particularly to prepare teachers as also to equip them to build their classroom lessons. Ministry of HRD has taken several measures to widen the use of ICT in schools, and many of these strategies have already been rolled out. It is suggested  that  a designated  national  agency should be encouraged  to conduct experiments in this regard, and also monitor various initiatives being taken all over the country; some steps to encourage private initiative also would be useful. The proposed national agency can also be made responsible for tracking the use of software programmes and suggest improvements where possible.

(e)       IT for Adult Literacy

5.2.21 There is much potential to use information technology to prepare relevant modules in aid of adult literacy. It is common experience that adults will not spare the time to learn new things, unless they have special interests in acquiring new skills, or  are motivated  to  learn new  languages or  other  material. Thus many illiterate women groups have been motivated to learn banking techniques through such IT video modules. A suitable agency in the Government of India should be encouraged to embark on new experiments in this regard.

(f)        IT Modules as Learning Tools in Higher Education

5.2.22 There is immense possibility of harnessing the power of IT in teaching / learning  processes  in  higher  education.  In  many  western  systems,  even  from senior  school  classes onwards, the basic lecture by the teacher  is sent on the internet to be seen at home by the student, to be followed up in the classroom by a discussion,  question-answer  session  and  analysis  –  to  sharply  enhance  the learning experience.

5.2.23 IGNOU has been a success in Indian conditions. As elsewhere pointed out, opportunities  should  now  be  available  for  private  initiative  in  spreading  E - education. Much experimentation will surely be useful in this regard, using the experience of IGNOU, and nominating IGNOU as the leader of this national initiative, with appropriate safeguards and directions. This theme has been dealt with in Chapter 8.

(g)       Other Possible uses of IT in Education

5.2.24 The above are only some of the new directions that need to be taken. As Digital India is rolled out fully, and more experiments are undertaken, it is equally likely that new innovative and imaginative uses of information technology will come to the fore, to be harnessed appropriately. The Committee has to leave this issue with the final thought that technology is only an enabler; it has to be harnessed and applied appropriately in each situation, to deliver new goals.

5.2.25 The above sections have indicated many new paths that need to be broken. As these are explored, further avenues will surely expand. A major thrust to use technology to enable sharply enhanced learning levels at the school and higher levels is now imperative.

(h)       Revamping   the   Information  Management  System   –  ‘Big  data’   inEducation

5.2.26 The Government of India introduced the District Information System for Education (DISE) in 1994, to be implemented by NUEPA. As conceived at that time this was designed to capture information from every school, routing it through the block level, and aggregating it at the district level for final compilation at the state headquarters. The first data base was released in 1995, covering 18 states and 272 districts.  With  the  launch  of  ‘Sarvashiksha  Abhiyan’  (SSA)  in  2001,  the  DISE covered the whole country; by 2005-06 nationwide data was published. Since then

DISE data is now released annually, in both raw and processed form and made available in the public domain.

5.2.27 Under DISE each school is to have a 11-digit ID code, with differentiated coding for elementary secondary and other classes, from classes 1 to 12. It was only from 2012-13 that a Single Data Capture Format (SDCF) was used across the country for entire school education consisting grade 1 to 12, with the code name U-DISE, located in NUEPA.

5.2.28 U-DISE is now the ‘Official Statistics’ and compiler of data; all other parallel connections for information is now discontinued. NUEPA as nodal agency is responsible for data compilation, but their data is forever mentioned with  the disclaimer that the ‘accuracy and faithfulness’ of the data rests with the State / UT concerned.

5.2.29 In concept, U-DISE is an extremely powerful instrument for gathering data. It must be noted that its validity depends on reliability of the information/data being  fed  into  the  system.  Since  less  than  10%  schools  have  computers  and reliable source of electricity, most of the data are generated manually and collated at block or district level. Compilation of voluminous data manually and collated at the block level is most likely to result in mistakes and inaccuracies, questioning the validity of the data.  Thus the reliability of the total data available at the state or national level could be highly questionable; with wide variations among states.

5.2.30 The Committee got the impression during field visits and discussions with state authorities that DISE data in many states may not be reliable. The Committee observed during its field visits that actual attendance in many primary schools was much less than the average attendance reported by DISE.  In recent years, in some states, which  have improved  the computer  capability in rural  areas, the enrolment  figures  have  actually  shown  a  decline  along  with  corresponding increase in drop-out rates.

5.2.31 If DISE has to be an effective information, monitoring and management tool, it is imperative that the data captured is dependable. Fortunately, the roll out of Digital India may now help in this regard.

5.2.32 It  may  be  noted  that  in  the  next  two  to  three  years  all  blocks  will  be covered through fibre-glass broadband network, as per the plans of the Ministry of Telecom; the connectivity will also be extended within a short period to 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats, with a local Wi-Fi hotspot for exchange of data. In conjunction with a handheld information device developed in India, with high reliability, it should now be possible in the near future to bring electronic connectivity to every school, however remote.

5.2.33 In short technology will be available within 2 years to populate DISE with fairly accurate data without time-lag, and without major manual data compilation, with relative ease and reliability. Preparations need to start without delay to use this opportunity to update the data collection systems on real-time basis.


5.2.34 The Committee has observed that at NUEPA, which is the focal point for national data compilation and dissemination, the data cell is highly inadequate. It also appears that it does not have competent advisory and technical arrangement with suitable IT expertise.

5.2.35 Once this is rolled out, this system has the potential to be a game changer. Every student (in every school, college, university or higher education institution), every teacher, Principal, school could have a unique identity – with real-time monitoring of education progress of students, teachers’ contribution to learning, Principals’ performance and the role of school / institution in the education process. This can be an extremely powerful monitoring and management tool, t o upgrade the education process phenomenally, in an open and transparent manner.

5.2.36 The DISE system is now geared only to government schools. It needs to be expanded  to  include  some  parts  of  private  educational  institutions  (unique identity and  monitoring  of each  student is  a  must); and  otherwise to  capture necessary data relating to each private educational institution. That will complete the process of mounting a reliable educational data process.


5.2.37 Major developments in communication and information technology in recent decades have brought in new dimensions in the fields of transmission of data, use of IT as a vehicle for monitoring and management; also to directly assist in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. Many new international applications possibilities have emerged; many of these have been tried out in Indian conditions. New possibilities continually keep emerging, which need to be appropriately harnessed and adapted in the field of education. It should also be noted that this will be an ongoing process, requiring initiatives from all stakeholders to contribute to the quality of education in India.

5.2.38    ICT should be made an integral part of school education where it is used as an aid to teachers and students. For this a beginning has to be made in the Teacher Training Colleges. Unless teachers are comfortable using computers and internet, they will find it difficult to use it as a teaching aid, or to guide students on its use, Teachers have to gradually become facilitators and encourage self-learning by students. Education can no longer be confined to what is in the text books; internet has removed all barriers to learning and made available sources of knowledge not accessible  so  far.  The  examination  system  will  have  to  be  revamped  to  test knowledge and understanding and not reproduce the text books. ICT can no longer be treated as a school subject, it has to become a way of learning process. This field is to be explored seriously and rolled out, in an appropriate manner, synchronizing with the Digital India Programme; such an approach will yield major dividends in a relatively short time.

5.2.39 ICT needs to be harnessed and adapted in Indian conditions to meet diverse objectives – in many fields where meaningful experimentation have taken place, as also new as-yet-tried out fields to be covered, including the following:

  •  IT as aid to the teacher in the classroom.
  • IT to aid in remedial education.
  • IT for use in training of teachers.
  • IT for adult literacy.
  • IT modules as learning tools in higher education.
  • Use of IT for ‘big-data’ as a management and governance tool.

5.2.40  The  potential for application  of  ICT  in  aid of  education  is immense. It is suggested that a designated national agency should be encouraged to conduct experiments in regard to potential use of ICT in the field of education, and also monitor various initiatives being taken all over the country.



5.3    Constitution of a Standing Education Commission 

5.3.1    The span of activity covered in the education sector in India is vast. In the vibrant aspirational democracy that India is, education should be in the frontline of national attention. With its universal outreach and potential for transforming society, it needs no emphasis that it deserves extra-ordinary attention.

5.3.2    Both in the policy formulation and the operational aspects, a major role is played by the Central Government. While certain aspects have a national focus, the States have considerable flexibility in applying their own norms in almost every segment of the education field. While the Central Government is responsible for overall national policy formulation, it is assisted by a number of a statutory or administrative agencies and institutions, which play a major role in every aspect of  implementation;  the  states  have  also  a  number  of  supporting  institutions, mostly autonomous, to assist in the rolling out of policies in the field.

5.3.3    The first post-independence National Educational Policy was announced in1968; the next NEP 86/92 was in 1992. Subsequently the Right to Education Actwas promulgated along with implementation of major programmes, covering the school and higher education sectors, as referred to elsewhere in this report. The sector has grown manifold in the past three decades, with the rate of growth not likely to slow down.

5.3.4    Amidst all these activities, the need for an overarching institution has been felt, which can assist the Central Government in providing a continuing overview, as the national education scene keeps reinventing itself on a nearly continuous basis. As new developments take place with great rapidity, the responses need to keep  pace with  the changed  circumstances.  The education sector  requires the advice, guidance and assistance of a high quality think-tank, to help it be in touch with the continually emerging challenges, which beckon policy changes to be effected from time to time.


5.3.5    The   Committee   recommends   that   a   high   level   standing   Education Commission be established, with the mandate to continually study the evolving circumstances, the implementation of progress of policies pronounced, and provide timely  advice and guidance to the ministry. It is not expected that the Commission would be an executive body, nor would its recommendations or advice would have any binding character. The Commission may also evolve the practice of issuing aNational State of Education’ report periodically perhaps once in two years. It is expected that the  Commission  will comprise of  a limited number of  experts and persons of eminence who have special knowledge and experience of the education sector in India, supported by a small secretariat.



5.4    Need  to  Restrict  Political  and  Other  Distractions  in  University  andCollege Campuses 

5.4.1    Most students in our colleges and universities enroll themselves for study in courses of their choice; they spend a precious part of their young life in the pursuit of their education, with the intent of equipping themselves for various occupations, or to study a subject which interests them. Most of them spend significant resources, including hard-earned money of their parents; they also expend much emotional energy in preparing for the examinations, and to undertake the necessary steps to get the degree. Most students in almost all colleges and universities could be classified in the above category.

5.4.2   However, one frequently hears of agitations, disturbances, gheraos and movements of one sort or the other in various campuses from time to time; it is not infrequent that examinations need to be postponed or in some cases the student even loses a year or more due to unsettled conditions. Many of these adverse circumstances arise out of the activities of various groups of students and other interested parties, whose priority may not be that of the main-line student, but who may have other interests outside academic goals. Many national parties have their ‘chapters’ in nearly every university campus in India. Many campuses also have caste-or-community-based organizations. Thus one finds unions or associations of subsets of students, or teachers, or other employees, who aggressively pursue their special political or other interests, within the arena of the campus, and the college / university ambit. It is not infrequent that two or more of such groups of students or faculty members come into serious opposition with each other on this or other issue, and have no hesitation in blocking the main-line work of the university; they may have real or imagined grievances, but the collateral damage to the serious students can be heavy indeed.

5.4.3    The Constitution provides every citizen with the right to form groups or associations. However, every right has a corresponding duty implicitly attached to it, that every right is circumscribed to ensure that it shall not adversely affect the interest of others. The Committee finds no major study in this regard, which has analyzed the activities of such political or sectoral or caste or community organizations or groups or ‘clubs’ in the campus, and evaluated their impact on the average student, and the cause of education in India – the cost of the damage is rarely estimated in such situations.

5.4.4    Traditionally   universities   in   the   US   and   the   western   world   have encouraged new ideas to flourish, and have never placed any restriction of any kind on freedom of speech or association within their campuses. It should also however be noted that one has rarely heard in the context of US or Europe or other educationally developed countries of postponement of examinations or disruption of academic activities, arising out of groups of students pursuing their‘right’ to free speech and association. Thus while intense political activity takes place nationally during an election year in US, like in 2016, and the student groups discuss these issues with much animation, one has never heard of disruption of the academic atmosphere in these universities. India, having its own unique features, needs to learn from other systems, as well as adopt or adapt them to our special needs. The Committee wishes to pose the question, without giving a clear - cut formula, whether the time has come to take this issue seriously and see if some steps are required to safeguard the interests of the vast majority of the students in pursuing their academic goals.

5.4.5  Universities and colleges are temples of learning. Some self-imposed restrictions surely should  be in place to  ensure that the primary work of the universities should be conducted without hindrance. Ideally the universities ought not   to   lend   themselves   as   play   grounds   for   the   larger   national   rivalries, inequalities, inequities, and social / cultural fault-lines; these need to be tackled by society as a whole in other fora a such as parliament, courts, elections, etc. The point in short is that it is now essential to review the current situation, and find the balance between free speech and freedom of association guaranteed by the Constitution, the needs of various sections of society, and balance them with the primary purpose for which the universities and institutions of higher learning have been established.

(a)       The Lyngdoh Committee

5.4.6    In 2005, the Apex Court asked the Lyngdoh Committee to look into the issue of elections in universities and colleges. The thrust of the Supreme Court conclusions   clearly   favoured   strong   restrictions   on   method,   system   and procedures of elections to unions within the institution. The Supreme Court accepted a number of recommendations, which inter-alia correspond to curbing the activities of student unions etc., which could potentially disrupt the academic atmosphere. “There shall be no appeal to caste or communal feelings for securing votes.” Indeed the use of loudspeakers for the purpose of canvassing was to be prohibited. The thrust of the Apex Court’s judgment is clearly to preserve the academic atmosphere in the institution. It is suggested that an examination may be made to extend the principles of the Lyngdoh Committee recommendations, to be  expanded  to  include  ‘non-recognition  to  student  groups  that  are  explicitly based on caste, religion, or one political party’.

(b)       Permission for Period of Stay of a ‘Student’ in the Campus

5.4.7    One other element need to be stressed. One frequently hears of ‘students’ who continue for 7 or 8 years or more, enrolled in the university, and occupying the hostels – in general should there not be some guidelines or time limits for enrolment in a particular course or for occupation of hostels; those who stay for long  periods  start  ‘owning’  the  universities,  and  frequently  have  an  undue influence on the course of non-academic activities in campuses.

5.4.8    The argument is often heard that the universities are the crucibles where‘political leadership’ is created in India. There may not be universal acceptance tothis thesis, nor even its validity.

5.4.9    The Committee surely does not want to give the impression that it is in favour of curbing free speech or right to association – the Constitution has guaranteed this to every citizen. Indeed the Committee has no immediate prescription to ‘solve’ the problem. The Committee however strongly recommends that this issue should be the subject of public debate, not only involving the vocal segments of the community who are votaries of ‘free speech’, but also the large silent mass of students and parents – indeed the community at large – to see if action, if any, is required. This is merely a plea for highlighting the issue, so that some light can be thrown on it through a large public discussion, in a calm and quiet atmosphere.

5.4.10 It should be added that the Committee has consulted at least one senior advocate. The opinion received indicates that reasonable restriction on speech or association,  which  falls  squarely  within  the  ambit  of  Article  19,  may  not  be deemed to be a violation of fundamental rights. ‘Prohibiting such activities within the campuses – or within a radius thereof – will be considered as reasonable’.


5.4.11  The Committee recommends a careful and non-emotional examination of the issue of permitting chapters of national political parties, or caste / community based organizations within campuses of universities. The Committee recognizes the great importance of unfettered generation of ideas, free speech and association in university campuses; it wishes to draw the impact in many circumstances of these on the rights of the students who are keen to pursue their academic goals in a time bound manner, in which they have invested heavily in time, energy and emotions. Should there be an enforceable code of conduct, or a law consistent with Article 19, are issues that could be covered in the discussions.

5.4.12  The Committee also would suggest a debate on the desirability of allowing students to continue in campuses for long periods, even after the normal schedules for each courses, or preparation of working for Ph. D etc. is over; should there be time limits imposed on these elements?

5.4.13  The Committee recommends a revisit of the recommendations of the LyngdohCommittee as they have found support from the Apex Court. Student groups that are explicitly based on caste, religion, or any political party should be abjured through the statues governing the universities and institutions.



5.5    Creation of an All India Education Service 

5.5.1   The subject of creation of a Central Service exclusively in the field of education has been suggested from time to time. Education is a field where the Central  Government  has a significant role to play; equally the states have  the flexibility and the autonomy to make policies, create institutions, and manage the sector in the manner best suited. The education sector in India employs nearly one crore personnel at all levels, including the school and higher education segments – this is roughly 8 times the next largest organized employing sector, viz. Railways or the Armed Forces. Looking it at differently, apart from the rural agriculture sector,  and  the  textile  sector,  which  provide  the  largest  employment  in  the country,   (though   not   on   organized   wage   employment   basis),   the   national education sector is the largest organized employer in the country. The sector also has the maximum public contact from the government – it is estimated that 1/5th of the population is in daily touch with the formal education sector in India.

5.5.2    The attention given to management in the sector, as discussed elsewhere, is not commensurate with the seminal role it plays in national society. The largest segment of employment in this sector relates to school teachers and principals – elsewhere improvement in personnel management to these critical groups of employees is discussed. Again the issue of overall management of the sector is covered in the sub-chapter relating to Governance in the education field.

5.5.3    Many states have created an Education Service, to man the administrative and management posts within the state. By and large, the quality of people in these cadres is reasonably good; the main reason why they are unable to pull their weight in improving management in the sector is due to poor governance factors, discussed elsewhere, as well as the fact that the state cadre officers rarely get to policy-making positions within the state. Even at the Centre, the senior personnel in the ministry dealing with policy generally are from various all India services, with  strong  representation  from  the  IAS  Cadre.  The  supporting  statutory  and other institutions of the MHRD, including the universities, have their own cadres, specially recruited, with little mobility to move to other fields in the education sector.

5.5.4    It is also observed that while vertical movement among the various groups of employees in the sector is often restricted, their movement across segments of the education sector is also quite limited. By and large, upward mobility is restricted by the principle of seniority, with little emphasis on merit. The lack of cross-fertilization of ideas stemming from absence of horizontal mobility is a serious  constraint  on  improving  the  quality  of  management  in  the  education sector. There is no cadre of high repute and credibility with mobility potential across and within states for managing the sector.


5.5.5    The Committee feels that the time has now come to create an all India service – the Indian Education Service. While this could be patterned on the other All India Services, there could be significant differentiation taking into account the special needs of personnel to function in the sector. The UPSC commands high credibility. It is proposed that the IES (Indian Education Service) could also be recruited through the UPSC.

5.5.6    Pending  the  commencement  of  direct  national  recruitment  to  the  IES, there could be a one-time special recruitment, under the aegis of the UPSC to get the service going, from among the existing cadres in the various states. Creation of an Indian Education Service would require support of the states.


5.5.7    The Committee recommends the establishment of a new Central service, the Indian Education Service (IES), which will function as an All India Service; with the officers being on permanent settlement to various state governments, and the MHRD being the cadre controlling authority. Persons from the cadre would progressively man the higher level policy posts at the state and the Centre; they will be, like other AIS  officers,  deployed  in  teaching  or  managerial  positions;  there  is  also  the possibility for lending IES officers to education institutions, which will broaden the experience and in course of time enhance their efficacy. Part of the manning of the national institutions attached with MHRD could also come from this cadre.


5.6    Dealing with Litigation


5.6.1    There are thousands of court cases, at the Centre and in the states, mostly concerning service conditions of teachers and other officials working in the education departments. The highest echelons of the Department spend a lot of time and energy in responding to court matters, which often drag on for long periods, resulting in neglect of other important matters concerning the education sector’s   core   priorities   and   functions.   With   the   proliferation   of   Central Universities, as well as institutions like Kendriya Vidyalayas, Navodaya Vidyalayas etc., there is a large backlog of cases in the Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) and in courts.

5.6.2    In a number of states, posts of school heads are lying vacant for years due to litigation. Many teacher recruitment processes are also inordinately delayed due  to  litigation.  The  school  education  departments  and  directorates  in  many states find it difficult to cope with the volume of court cases, particularly in personnel  related  matters,  but  also  to  others  arising  out of  different  kinds  of administrative decisions. In a number of contempt of court cases, senior officers are  often  required  to  attend  court  personally.  The  Committee  even  heard, probably  facetiously,  that many  states  have  two  secretaries  in  each  education department – one to handle the department’s work, and the other to attend the High Court and other courts on summons for answering ‘contempt’ charges; the point is that this issue has not been hitherto properly addressed. The Committee is satisfied that a new approach to deal with the volume of such litigation needs to be examined, to result in savings in time, energy and cost.

5.6.3    The main reasons for such large number of court cases relate to lack of clarity in procedures, arbitrary action, lack of transparency and indifference towards genuine grievances.   Attention needs to be given to address these administrative issues, which would help reduce litigation.

5.6.4    A system needs to be devised to attend to grievances, particularly relating to service matters, as also follow up of administrative decisions, expeditiously and in a fair manner, especially to deal with the volumes of such litigation in states. The Committee suggests that each State Government may consider setting up judicial tribunals at the state headquarters, and even at other centres in the state as  required,  headed  by  a  retired  district  judge  or  high  court  judge,  with  two serving or retired state government officers of the secretary level as members. The number of tribunals could increase based on volume of work. These tribunals would be designed to take up first appeals against orders of the concerned state government or their agencies. The above appellate board should not normally entertain an appeal against a departmental decision after the expiry of 30 days of the receipt of the order of the government decision, in respect of a service matter or other executive decision relating to administration of the department’s work. The appellate board should be designed to dispose of the appeal normally within three months of lodging. This device should sharply increase focus on early settlement of executive disputes relating to service and other matters of school or college administration. Surely appeal will lie to the relevant higher courts. It is suggested that the above device should significantly help address the burden and cost of litigation involving the state education departments.

5.6.5    It   may   also   be   examined   whether   at   the   Centre,   an   appropriate departmental tribunal may be created, presided over by a retired high court judge and  comprising  of  two  officers  of  the  rank  of  secretaries  to  the  government, retired  or  serving  to  listen  to  first  appeals  against  orders  of  the  Central government or their agencies. This decision may be taken based on the volume of pendency of departmental and service cases in CAT and in other fora. The above appellate board shall not entertain appeal against a departmental decision after the expiry of 30 days of the receipt of the order of the government decision, in respect   of   any   service   matter   or   other   executive   decision   relating   to administration of the department’s work. The appellate board should be designed to dispose of the appeal normally within three months of lodging. This device should sharply increase focus on early settlement of executive disputes relating to service matters or school or college administration. Surely appeal will lie to the relevant higher courts. It is suggested that the above device should significantly help address the burden and cost of litigation involving the MHRD. Additional regional tribunals could be setup as required, based on volume of litigation from time to time.


5.6.6    The Committee notes the very heavy volume of litigation, mainly concerning service matters, but also relating to other administrative disputes, pending in the various wings of the MHRD, and related agencies of the Ministry. Depending on the volume  and  nature  of  service  disputes  covered  by  the  Central  Administrative Tribunal (CAT), the Committee proposes establishment of Administrative Tribunals at the Centre and in the states, to be chaired by retired judges and with members drawn from academic and educational administrative sector; these tribunals should be statutorily the first point for hearing service disputes and other administrative matters, to give a finding within a specified schedule (say three months). Appeals will naturally lie to other courts; but this device should sharply decrease the volume of litigation involving the ministry, and consequent expenditure of time, energy and resources.

5.6.7    The  Committee  similarly  recommends  that  the  State  Governments  may appoint one or more such tribunals at the state headquarters and at other centres in the state, to deal with litigation concerning service matters, and other disputes, with a tight time schedule. It is proposed that these tribunals could be headed by a retired district or high court judge, comprising of two retired or serving secretary level officers. While appeal against the orders of the tribunal will lie to the relevant courts, it is expected that mostly only matters relating to legal issues will be taken up on further appeals, leading to considerable savings in time, energy and resources.


5.7    Public Expenditure on Education


5.7.1  The earlier NPEs of 1968 and 1986, as modified in 1992, had all recommended 6% of GDP as a norm for the national outlay on education. The1968 NPE stated that “the aim should be gradually to increase the investment in education so as to reach a level of expenditure of 6 per cent of the national income as  early  as  possible.”  This  target  had  been  endorsed  by  the  1986  NPE.  Themodified 1992 NPE went further and stated that “the outlay on education will be stepped  up to  ensure that  during  the Eighth Five Year  Plan (1992 -1997) and onwards it will uniformly exceed six percent of the national income.”

5.7.2   Despite these exhortations, however, the expenditure on education has consistently remained well below this level. From 0.64% in 1951-52, the ratio climbed to 3.84% in 1990-91. It briefly breached the 4% threshold at the turn of the millennium but has thereafter reverted to a level of around 3.5% in recent years. Just for comparison, the corresponding level of expenditure in OECD countries is at an average of 5.3% of the GDP of those countries; indeed 11 OECD countries  exceed  6%.  Note  that  these  are  highly  developed  countries,  where income levels are high; the governments consider such expenditure as investment in their people. In India’s current state of development, a minimum of 6% of GDP, if  not  at  much  higher  level,  should  be  essential  expenditure  in  the  education sector.


5.7.3   As a percentage of the total government expenditure across all sectors (budgeted expenditure in the revenue account), expenditure of Centre and States/UTs governments on education has been hovering around 8% and 22.5% respectively over the past few years. While share of the expenditure on education by States and UTs as a percentage of their total budget on all sectors has been stagnating over the past few years (i.e. around 22.5%), expenditure on education by the Central Government as a percentage of its total budgeted expenditure on all sectors has been increasing marginally during this period i.e. from 7.5% in 2011 -12  (actual)  to  8.6%  in  2013-14  (budget  estimates)  (Analysis  of  BudgetedExpenditure in Education, 2013-14).

5.7.4    All states together spent (revenue and capital Rs.3,75,291 crores in 2014-15; the Union Government spent Rs.78,661 crores that year. It is to be noted thatover the past ten years the rate of spending of states has declined marginally; while the Central Government share has increased from 13% to 17% in the same period. Latest NUEPA estimates indicate that the highest growth in expenditure in past ten years is in elementary education, largely contributed by expansion of RTE (also presumably due to sharply increased pay scales of teachers based on Finance Commission’s recommendations); on the other hand the growth in expenditure in secondary education is much lower. In contrast, allocation for adult education has started falling in recent years.

5.7.5    No clear basis is available to assess the quality of expenditure in education, as also to compare allocations between different regions in India. Using SSA as the proxy, latest NUEPA analysis points out that the Southern states have sharply increased their allocation of the total from 14% to 19%, while during the same time, the Eastern and Middle States lost their share from about 40% to 29%; the Northern states also  lost their  share from  40% to  36%. Again while numbers available are not fully reliable, research elsewhere indicates that there is a correlation  between  the  expenditure  share  on  education  in  each  state  to  the quality and growth in education standards.

5.7.6    Due to financial transfer recommended by 14th  Finance Commission, the states would get 42% of the tax devolution in FY 2015-16 as against 32% in the previous  period,  translating  into  an  additional  Rs.3,93,912  crores  available  to states in 2015-16. It is not quite clear as to how this will translate into additional allocation to the education sector. With less budgetary resources with GOI, allocations to education sector in general and school sector in particular may start coming down, in contrast to experience of recent years – indeed this is already reflected  in the GOI budget of 2015-16. Besides, the funding  pattern for  most centrally  sponsored  schemes  has  been  revised  to  60/40,  reducing  the  central share. It remains to be seen if in fact the states’ share in education would go up or not – logically it should; only time will tell. Again it has been argued that the 14 th Finance  Commission  award  may  not  indeed  result  in  higher  allocation  to  the states. The key question remains as to what is going to happen to the issue of financing  of  school  sector  in  totality  from  2015-16  onwards  –  the  issue  is  of critical importance.

5.7.7    The 6% norm is by no means excessive when set against the standards of other developing countries. While Cuba devotes over 18% of its GDP to education, Malaysia, Kenya and even Malawi manage to cross the 6% bench-mark. The global weighted average of Government spending as percent of GDP for all the countries in the world is 4.9%, substantially above that in India.

5.7.8    The   Committee   reiterates   that   6%   of  GDP   is   the   minimal   level   of expenditure on education which must be attained almost immediately if there is to be any realistic hope of meeting the needs of the sector.

Imperative need to maintain at least 6% expenditure of GDP on education

5.7.9    Policies   in   the   past   decades   have   visibly   increased   participation   in education  by  all  section  of  the  population,  as  figures  mentioned  elsewhere indicate. Both in school education and in higher education, while distribution of students from economically weaker strata has increased, the casualty has been in the quality of education. India’s strength is its human resource; this  has to be nurtured – education is the simplest and surest way to ensure optimal utilization of India’s demographic advantage.

5.7.10 A massive programme for skill development has been embarked by the government, noting that 65% of the population is under 35 years of age. The work force in the next decades need to be adequately educated / trained, for them to play a part in nation building. Indeed if this is not attended to with great care today,  the  projected  demographic  ‘dividend’  may  actually  turn  out  to  be  a‘disaster’ in the next decades. This Committee’s report recognizes and stresses the urgent need to sharply increase quality in our education system, which includes skills training and vocational education, for which new innovative comprehensive programmes need to be rolled out without delay. It will be short-sighted indeed if this is not recognized today, as we will then be mortgaging our tomorrow by failure to act now.

5.7.11 It is also in the above spirit that the Committee has recommended full rol l out of the ECCE, with its unavoidable implications for additional finances. The need for vocational/skill training will also require massive investments. The funds for these have to be found.

5.7.12 The Committee realizes that additional allocations alone on education will not ensure quality – a number of collateral steps are essential, outlined by the Committee elsewhere in the Report. However, the extreme focus on pre-primary and primary education has to be intensified; the secondary sector has been relatively neglected – it has to be provided for adequately. The conclusion is inescapable that a minimum of 6% of GDP needs to be devoted to the education sector (not including the separate needs of skills/vocational training.

5.7.13 The  1968  as  well  as  1986  policy  rightly  stressed  the  minimum  6% expenditure of GDP in education. Successive governments had not heeded to this call. Development of the human resource is a basic national infrastructure; there is perhaps inadequate recognition that it is even more important than physical infrastructure.

5.7.14 Considering the critical importance of focusing on the school sector, and equally to develop qualitatively and quantitatively the higher education sector, it is now imperative that funds should be found to meet the total needs of the school sector; the resources from the private sector need to be adequately marshalled for the needs of the higher education sector.

5.7.15 The approach to funding programmes in the child education sector must undergo a fundamental change. Programmes must be budgeted from the bottom up, instead of being pruned to fit top down budgetary allocations, as is presently the case.

5.7.16 It  is  a  truism,  but nevertheless  worth  reiterating,  that  there  can  be  no better investment than in the future of India’s children.


5.7.17  The Committee recommends that the outlay on education should be raised to a minimum level of 6% of GDP with immediate effect.

5.7.18 Additional funding needs to be found for meeting the needs of ECCE as recommended elsewhere in the report.

5.7.19 The separate needs for vocational/skills training, in large scale, are also imperative; additional financing, outside the 6% referred to would need to be found.



5.8   Need for Special Academic and Other Support to Children from Socially and Economically Weaker Sections 

5.8.1    The Committee has recorded that over the years, accessibility to education in India has significantly improved. It is also largely true that the equity aspects have dramatically improved, particularly after RTE has come into being. There is now general awareness of the constitutional/ statutory duty that every child should have a substantial period of formal education. While infrastructure deficiencies continue in the school sector and the dropout rates are also unconscionably high – aspects which have been highlighted in this report – the fact is that our school and higher education sectors are now open to segments of society which were not participating hitherto. Indeed the main message of this report is to stress the need for up-gradation of the quality of education, in all its senses, across the board.

5.8.2    The field visits, as well as the interaction that the Committee members had with experts, officials, teachers and other stakeholders, have highlighted the need relating to one aspect which has not been sufficiently recognized or commented upon by observers and researchers, especially in respect of school sector, but also as it partially obtains in the higher education sector. Apart from the infrastructure and  other  systemic  gaps  in  management  and  organization  that  have  been described in the report, there is perhaps inadequate articulation of one key element, relating to the process of ‘learning’, as it obtains in the Indian scene today.

5.8.3    The Committee has observed that with all the safeguards that the system provides to ensure equity, and equality among all concerned, there is a significant element of handicap suffered by the economically weaker segments, as well as a substantial membership of the socially backward communities relating to inequality in learning opportunity. The reference here is not to the fact that expensive private schools are accessible to the relatively affluent, who also have access to private coaching options to ensure that they get the most of their educational opportunities; there are other certain sociological and circumstantial factors which have not been hitherto sufficiently understood, or not commented upon. In three separate sets of circumstances, the Committee feels that these factors come into play. Some elements of these are mentioned below:

(i)      It is well recognized that in the early childhood classes, particularly Class2 to Class 4 the basic language and arithmetic skills are learned by the child, which becomes the core base to build on for their future education. Indeed  there has been  a reference  to  the principle of ’90-90’ – which refers to the goal in every class that 90% of the students acquire mastery over 90% of what is being taught. This is the ideal, but is rarely achieved. Indeed ASER and other reports have commented on the very substantial percentage of students, even at class 8 level, unable to have mastery of the curriculum  of say,  class 4. This  failure in the early classes  will  surely handicap a child throughout his educational career, indeed whole life. It is noticed that there is no inbuilt mechanism within the schooling process or in the pedagogy, or the safety-net procedures to keep a watchful eye on laggards, to ensure that they are given a helping hand close the gap to reach  to  the  average  level  of  the  class.  The Committee  has  elsewhere referred to ‘remedial measures’ or ‘augmentation’ systems – there is no additional focus that in general the children from economically weaker sections and socially disadvantaged groups need special care, attention, from  all  who  oversee  the  task  of  looking  after  the  education  of these children. In short, the first area where this principle of ‘special attention’ should apply relates to the earlier primary classes, to target the children from economically weaker segments and from socially disadvantaged classes.

(ii)    The next stage where this syndrome, if one may categorize it as such, applies usually around the early periods of class 11, for those who clear the  class  10  barrier,  particularly those  from rural  schools.  This  is  the period   where   education   becomes   highly   intense,   and   the   school authorities / teachers cannot pause to give special attention to those boys and girls, particularly from rural background, who cannot cope up with the pace of the class. In this competitive atmosphere, most children who would tend to flounder left to themselves, could immensely benefit from assistance to cover a difficult phase in their educational career. Anecdotal experience as heard by Committee repeatedly refer to extra attention – a helping hand – rendered at this juncture, could be a boon to a large number of such children to tide over simple problems – relating to the academic subjects, language difficulty, adjustment and orientation issues– and make them feel comfortable with the pace of their courses and their studies. This is possibly one area where some remedial attention, to identified children could be of great use.

(iii)   Finally, the Committee heard repeatedly, in the context of engineering and other technical courses, that the new comers, particularly from rural schools, frequently find themselves unable to cope with the situation, partly for sociological reasons, and also from diffidence that they are unable to adjust with the urban environment and the college atmosphere. Experience has shown that at this critical period in their educational career, young men and women need a helping hand to tide over a difficult phase – cross their mental barrier, after which they effortlessly blend into the normal phase, and rhythm of the course and curriculum. In particular, those from rural schools, who may have learnt their subjects in their mother tongue, frequently, find barriers in crossing the language bridge, and tuning themselves to the ‘college’ atmosphere – assistance to sort out their real or imagined issues at this juncture could pay dividends.

5.8.4    The Committee feels that those who are in-charge in implementation policy and  systems,  need  to  be  aware  of  the  special  difficulties  of  certain  classes  o f students at certain phases of their school/college careers; and with appropriately designed remedial/advisory/guidance/training facilities organized, the large unnecessary wastage that one now sees in the educational system could get mitigated to a considerable extent – allowing millions of youngsters to derive full value from their education, on which they have expended so much energy and resources.


5.8.5    The  Committee  wishes  to  highlight  that  there  are  critical  stages  in  thelearning’ periods of children, where they need a special helping hand to guide them, with some extra training or coaching or advisory facility to enable them fully to use their educational opportunities. This observation relates, in general, to children from economically backward segments, as also socially disadvantaged groups. While such periods for each child cannot be defined accurately, in general, many such children need assistance and help particularly in three stages during their educational career– (a) in the period of primary schooling where it is important to learn the basics oflanguage’ and ‘arithmetic’; (b) in early class 11 phase, where the courses become tougher, a system to help them feel at home in the extra competitive atmosphere of the class; and (c) finally, in the early periods in technical courses, particularly with respect  to  rural  youngsters  who  did  their  schooling  in  their  mother  tongue,  to acclimatize them to the prevailing circumstances and conditions of urban learning centres.

5.8.6    The  Committee  recommends that a well thought out programme  may be evolved, based on local resources, conditions and circumstances, to assist students in these critical periods. This would be in addition to the overall recommendations made by the Committee in this report to sharply upgrade the processes of learning, across the education system.

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